Atlantic Chapter

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Fracking Chemicals

Ever wonder what's in that toxic cocktail of stuff the fracking companies mix into the water and sand when they frack for natural gas?

Here is a list of potential chemicals used in the fracking process.  This doesn't include all possible chemicals, just a sample of potential chemicals used. 

One of the problems associated with identifying chemicals is that some chemicals have multiple names.  For example Ethylene Glycol (Antifreeze) is also known by the names Ethylene alcohol; Glycol; Glycol alcohol; Lutrol 9; Macrogol 400 BPC; Monoethylene glycol; Ramp; Tescol; 1,2-Dihydroxyethane; 2-Hydroxyethanol; HOCH2CH2OH; Dihydroxyethane; Ethanediol; Ethylene gycol; Glygen; Athylenglykol; Ethane-1,2-diol; Fridex; M.e.g.; 1,2-Ethandiol; Ucar 17; Dowtherm SR 1; Norkool; Zerex; Aliphatic diol; Ilexan E; Ethane-1,2-diol  1,2-Ethanedio.

This multiplicity of names can make a search for chemicals somewhat difficult and frustrating. However, if you search for a chemical by the CAS number it will return the correct chemical even if the name on the fracturing record does not match. For example if the fracturing record listed the chemical Hydrogen chloride and you searched for it by name using a chemical search site you may not get a result. But if you search for CAS # 007647-01-0 it might return Hydrochloric acid which is another name of Hydrogen chloride. Therefore, by using the CAS number you can avoid the issue of multiple names for the same chemical.

 

Chemical Name

CAS

Chemical Purpose

Product Function

Hydrochloric Acid

007647-01-0

Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rock

Acid

 

 

 

 

Glutaraldehyde

000111-30-8

Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products

Biocide

Quaternary Ammonium Chloride

012125-02-9

Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products

Biocide

Quaternary Ammonium Chloride

061789-71-1

Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products

Biocide

Tetrakis Hydroxymethyl-Phosphonium Sulfate

055566-30-8

Eliminates bacteria in the water that produces corrosive by-products

Biocide

 

 

 

 

Ammonium Persulfate

007727-54-0

Allows a delayed break down of the gel

Breaker

Sodium Chloride

007647-14-5

Product Stabilizer

Breaker

Magnesium Peroxide

014452-57-4

Allows a delayed break down the gel 

Breaker

Magnesium Oxide

001309-48-4

Allows a delayed break down the gel 

Breaker

Calcium Chloride

010043-52-4

Product Stabilizer

Breaker

 

 

 

 

Choline Chloride

000067-48-1

Prevents clays from swelling or shifting

Clay Stabilizer

Tetramethyl ammonium chloride

000075-57-0

Prevents clays from swelling or shifting

Clay Stabilizer

Sodium Chloride

007647-14-5

Prevents clays from swelling or shifting

Clay Stabilizer

 

 

 

 

Isopropanol

000067-63-0

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent

Corrosion Inhibitor

Methanol

000067-56-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent

Corrosion Inhibitor

Formic Acid

000064-18-6

Prevents the corrosion of the pipe

Corrosion Inhibitor

Acetaldehyde

000075-07-0

Prevents the corrosion of the pipe

Corrosion Inhibitor

 

 

 

 

Petroleum Distillate

064741-85-1

Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinker

Crosslinker

Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate

064742-47-8

Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate crosslinker

Crosslinker

Potassium Metaborate

013709-94-9

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Triethanolamine Zirconate

101033-44-7

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Sodium Tetraborate

001303-96-4

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Boric Acid

001333-73-9

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Zirconium Complex

113184-20-6

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Borate Salts

N/A

Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature increases

Crosslinker

Ethylene Glycol

000107-21-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Crosslinker

Methanol

000067-56-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Crosslinker

 

 

 

 

Polyacrylamide

009003-05-8

“Slicks” the water to minimize friction 

Friction Reducer

Petroleum Distillate

064741-85-1

Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer

Friction Reducer

Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate

064742-47-8

Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer

Friction Reducer

Methanol

000067-56-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Friction Reducer

Ethylene Glycol

000107-21-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Friction Reducer

 

 

 

 

Guar Gum

009000-30-0

Thickens the water in order to suspend the sand

Gelling Agent

Petroleum Distillate

064741-85-1

Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels

Gelling Agent

Hydrotreated Light Petroleum Distillate

064742-47-8

Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels

Gelling Agent

Methanol

000067-56-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Gelling Agent

Polysaccharide Blend

068130-15-4

Thickens the water in order to suspend the sand

Gelling Agent

Ethylene Glycol

000107-21-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Gelling Agent

 

 

 

 

Citric Acid

000077-92-9

Prevents precipitation of metal oxides

Iron Control

Acetic Acid

000064-19-7

Prevents precipitation of metal oxides

Iron Control

Thioglycolic Acid

000068-11-1

Prevents precipitation of metal oxides

Iron Control

Sodium Erythorbate

006381-77-7

Prevents precipitation of metal oxides

Iron Control

 

 

 

 

Lauryl Sulfate

000151-21-3

Used to prevent the formation of emulsions in the fracture fluid

Non-Emulsifier

Isopropanol

000067-63-0

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Non-Emulsifier

Ethylene Glycol

000107-21-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Non-Emulsifier

 

 

 

 

Sodium Hydroxide

001310-73-2

Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers 

pH Adjusting Agent

Potassium Hydroxide

001310-58-3

Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers 

pH Adjusting Agent

Acetic Acid

000064-19-7

Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers 

pH Adjusting Agent

Sodium Carbonate

000497-19-8

Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers 

pH Adjusting Agent

Potassium Carbonate

000584-08-7

Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintains the effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers 

pH Adjusting Agent

 

 

 

 

Copolymer of Acrylamide and Sodium Acrylate

025987-30-8

Prevents scale deposits in the pipe

Scale Inhibitor

Sodium Polycarboxylate

N/A

Prevents scale deposits in the pipe

Scale Inhibitor

Phosphonic Acid Salt

N/A

Prevents scale deposits in the pipe

Scale Inhibitor

 

 

 

 

Lauryl Sulfate

000151-21-3

Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid

Surfactant

Ethanol

000064-17-5

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Surfactant

Naphthalene

000091-20-3

Carrier fluid for the active surfactant ingredients

Surfactant

Methanol

000067-56-1

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Surfactant

Isopropyl Alcohol

000067-63-0

Product stabilizer and / or winterizing agent.  

Surfactant

2-Butoxyethanol

000111-76-2

Product stabilizer

Surfactant

 

Date: 
Monday, June 3, 2013
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